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Received Oct 2; Accepted Feb 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Introduction This paper explores definitions of death from the perspectives of several world and indigenous religions, with practical application for health care providers in relation to end of life decisions and organ and tissue donation after death.
It provides background material on several traditions and explains how different religions derive their conclusions for end of life decisions from the ethical guidelines they proffer.
It then examined sources to which these authors referred in footnotes and bibliographies. In addition, material was gathered through searches of data bases in religious studies, general humanities, social sciences and medicine along with web-based key word searches for current policies in various traditions.
Results Religious traditions provide their adherents with explanations for the meaning and purpose of life and include ethical analysis for the situations in which their followers find themselves.
This paper aims to increase cultural competency in practitioners by demonstrating the reasoning process religions use to determine what they believe to be the correct decision in the face of death. Conclusion Patterns emerge in the comparative study of religious perspectives on death.
Western traditions show their rootedness in Judaism in their understanding of the human individual as a finite, singular creation.
The tradition has not insisted on uniformity in the religious life. In this regard, it is at a considerable remove from the Abrahamic In Hinduism, as in other religions included in this volume, A Hindu Perspective 21 suny_Rai_Chqxd 11/15/00 PM Page Fortitude, piety, a friend and a wife—these four are tested only in. Hinduism (Great Religions of Modern Man) Renou, Louis ; Hinduism Kim Knott ; In general, it refers to one's vocation or career, which is often defined by class and family. If a Hindu man's father is a tire maker, his dharma is probably to make tires, too. Traditionally, the dharma of most women has been to be a housewife and a mother. See more of The Hindu Perspective on Facebook. Log In. Forgot account? or. Create New Account. Not Now. Community See All. that most unsettling truth of life, the question and curiosity of the afterlife arises; what has happened to the person who has died? A deeper analysis into the symbolism and meaning of this popular tale of Hinduism.
Although the many branches of Western religions do not agree on precisely how to determine death, they are all able to locate a moment of death in the body. In Eastern traditions personhood is not defined in physical terms.
From prescribing the location of death, to resisting medical intervention and definitions of death, Eastern religions, in their many forms, incorporate the beliefs and practices that preceded them.
Adding to the complexity for these traditions is the idea that death is a process that continues after the body has met most empirical criteria for determining death.
For Hinduism and Buddhism, the cessation of heart, brain and lung function is the beginning of the process of dying—not the end. Roman Catholicism, for example, believes that death happens when the soul leaves the body; Buddhism sees death occurring at a point after the invisible, subtle consciousness leaves the physical body.
Because these events are not visible, religions turn to empirical evidence to determine that death has occurred. This paper seeks to explore how religious perspectives define death and determine that it has occurred with application to end of life care and donation of organs and tissues after death.
This paper develops the basic features of religious traditions and the ways in which their ethical analysis takes place.
It aims to increase cultural competency in practitioners by demonstrating the reasoning process religions use to determine the correct decision in the face of death.
Research for this explication and analysis took several forms beginning with a review of books and articles written by key ethicists in Judaism, and various forms of Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism.
The first seek a conceptual understanding of the essential differences between life and death.
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The second seek to determine the clinical signs, tests, or criteria which separate life and death most accurately [ 1 ]. These biologically based definitions have developed for several reasons.
New life sustaining technologies, including artificial heart-lung machines, the ability to transplant life sustaining organs and compliance with the dead donor rule for the purposes of post mortem transplantation, require precision in determining a specific moment when death can be pronounced.
Because of the need for biological clarity in understanding the point of death, there are a wide range of articles offering different opinions on how to make appropriate empirical assessments.
Scholars have provided solid scholarship on a range of religious traditions understanding of determining death. For example, individuals such as Damien Keown [ 3 ] and Karma Leske Tsomo [ 4 ] discuss Buddhist perspectives, Omar Sultan Haque [ 5 ] provides material on Islamic ethics and end of life issues, Yitzchok Breitowitz [ 6 ] gives an overview of contemporary Jewish perspectives, and Aaron Mackler provides a comparative analysis of Jewish and Roman Catholic Bioethics [ 7 ].
Chaplains Sue Wintz and George Handzbo have produced a Handbook for healthcare professionals containing useful information from a wide range of traditions on a variety of bio-medical ethical issues including determining death and withdrawing support [ 8 ].
There is not, however, one source that provides an overview of the ethical decision making that occurs as various religions think about death and determine that it has occurred. This article fills that void by providing a starting point for the analysis of end-of-life determinations.
It uses the perspective and methodology of comparative religion to provide an overview of the basic features of individual traditions, to discuss how they view life and death and to explore how they make moral decisions in the face of death. When confronting issues at the edges of life, religious perspectives can become especially influential because they explain the nature of the human individual, the goal of life, the reasons for death and for most, what happens after the death of the body.
Because religions provide a way of interpreting the world, individuals living in the midst of a particular tradition can continue to be influenced by it even if they have stopped believing or practicing.
Traditions that do not share these influences construe their understandings of death from sources within their cultures and faiths and can reject determinations of death that center on the brain.
In the United States, two states, New York and New Jersey, have enacted legal protections for individuals holding religious views that differ from the standard definitions of death.
Until the middle of the twentieth century, death was something observed. Breathing stopped and so did the beating of the heart. Prior to the introduction of mechanical ventilators in the midth century and the evolution of resuscitative measures, a non-brain or circulation formulation was used to determine death.
The concept of brain death also addressed ethical concerns associated with organ donation that arose from the then-new discipline of transplant surgery.
Mechanical respirators complicated the situation since they could breathe for a patient. The situation of the artificially maintained patient developed.
By the latter half of the 20th century a view of death that did not look to breathing or a beating heart prevailed in most American and European hospitals.The Hindu religion is the oldest religion of the five major religions, which are Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism (Major World Religions, ).
The Hindu religion began to develop about years ago in India, but it there was no single founder or system of belief (Major World Religions, ). Whilst the topic of “Women Priests and Spiritual Leaders” remains controversial in many religions, such as Catholicism, Hinduism from ancient times has boasted a number of remarkable female spiritual leaders.
The Rig Veda, the most ancient Hindu sacred text, cites more than 30 women sages. The continuing relevance of Gandhiji’s perspective on Hinduism consists in asserting that the authentic view of Hinduism is to see it as a liberal, inclusive, pluralist and socially sensitive religion.
As per my typical “modern-Hindu” upbringing – I was taught to see all other religions in the best possible light, on par with my own. “All religions are a path to the same God” was an often repeated phrase when talking about religion.
HINDUISM IN BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVE. by Dr. kaja-net.comkara.
which in the last analysis has to be equated to the divine principle, and becomes a form of theism even if it is a non-personal and non-anthropomorphic theism.
Without such a specific interpretation of "Brahman" there cannot be a rationale for the Brahmanical and Hindu . Hinduism is about understanding Brahma, existence, from within the Atman, which roughly means "self" or "soul," whereas Buddhism is about finding the Anatman — "not soul" or "not self." In Hinduism, attaining the highest life is a process of removing the bodily distractions from life, allowing one to eventually understand the Brahma nature within.