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THE following work has grown out of my necessities and my experience as a teacher. When, several years ago, I accepted a professorship, the duties of which required me to teach Logic, I could nowhere find a text-book that seemed to me to satisfy the demands of the science.
Nor was this feeling peculiar to myself. Arguments that commend themselves to any untaught mind as valid and practically important, have no place in a system that professedly includes all reasoning whatever; and an attempt to reduce to its technical forms the first few pages of any scientific work, has generally ended in failure and disgust.
Of all the efforts which have recently been made to remedy this deficiency, two can be considered as requiring notice in this place: The work of Mr. Thompson just referred to, is, in its essential features, little, if any thing, more than an exposition of Sir William's theory.
De Morgan has earned a name in his own department mathematicswhich scholars hereafter will be pleased to remember and contemplate. But philosophy, in any of its departments, is not his calling.
His theory is essentially numerical. He measures every thing by numerical quantity rather than logical.
For the purposes of calculation, 2 X, X, and X' are truly different terms, and can no more be substituted for each other than X, Y and Z. In this case, X, Y and Z, 2 X and X2, are assumed as representing simply number; that is, a number of units.
Now, units have no individual properties —nothing to distinguish one from another. But the words or symbols used in Logic represent the conceptions that we form of objects of thought, which are not units merely, but individuals also, having each of them inseparable and peculiar properties of their own, upon which not only their adequate conception, but any use which we can make of that conception in the Formula, whether of mediate or of immediate deduction, depends.
This fact has been overlooked in Prof. De Morgan's Formal Logic, to an extent which deprives it of any great value as a system. Perhaps the best test of any theory, is a comparison of its deductions with the obvious facts and first principles of knowledge.
Philosophy may undertake to correct the common sense notions of mankind, but Logic cannot. And with how much success philosophy can pursue such an attempt we will not now undertake to decide. But in this case it cannot succeed. The conclusion, if established, would be generalized at once-as in fact it ought to be-and we should have the doctrine that identity depends upon the separable accidents; and then all science, all knowledge, ethics, and religion, too, will be afloat and dissolved into fragments.
A man's separable accidents change from day to day; consequently his identity changes. He is not the same man to-day that he was yesterday — is not bound to fulfil the contracts of yesterday, or to suffer the penalty due to its transgression. A theory that not only gives such results, but openly avows them, may be safely considered ab absurdo.
I cannot but regard Sir William Hamilton's theory as equally unfounded. Sir William's name is one of the greatest of the present century of great names in philosophy.
His rank will undoubtedly be in the first class —with Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, and Cousin-the few great names that stud the galaxy of history. For an acquaintance with the learning and works of others in the department of speculative philosophy, he stands unrivalled, and probably will never be surpassed.
But I have not been able to form any such high estimate of his attempts at originality. He assumes that there may be affirmative judgments with distributed predicates. But, as I have showr Part I, chap.
But, again, he assumes that there may be negative judgments with undistributed predicates. To this I have given what I think will be found a sufficient answer in p. A subject is excluded from a Predicate only because it has not the Essentia of the class-conception denoted by that predicate.
But the Essentia of one part of the individuals contained in it, can never be different from that of another. Hence, whatever would exclude a subject from a part of the predicate-that is, the predicate as an undistributed termwould exclude it for the whole of the predicate as a distributed term.
If Sir William's theories were correct on these points, doubtless we should be obliged to abandon the old nomenclature altogether and begin anew; as, indeed, Sir William proposes to do.
But believing as I do, and for the reasons given, that his theory of quantification is fundamentally wrong, I have adhered to the old doctrine, so modifying the statement and exposition of it as to provide for the cases which he had regarded as demanding the new theory.
It will also be observed, that in the following treatise I have made more account of Method than recent writers have been generally inclined to do.
Many of them, in fact, have omitted it entirely. Perhaps'the manner in which it had been treated by the scholastic writers, may serve, in some measure, as a justification for the estimate in which the modern authors have held that part of Logical Science.
Vii properly denoted by the word Method, and in thus giving a practical direction and applicability to the whole study. This is what I have attempted to do in the part on Method, and' I hope that scholars and teachers will agree with me in the esti mate I have placed upon the subject.Earnings differentials Unemployment Labour market legislation and affirmative action 53 54 54 Households 55 as well as developing an analysis of economic policy and the budget process itself, from a gender perspective.
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Against Affirmative Action People in the forums under 30 were broadly opposed to affirma-tive action, particularly in terms of higher education and scholar-ships. Even some of those who had benefited from affirmative action found the practice prob-lematic. In contrast, where the individual plaintiffs seek to prove their own cases through pattern or practice methods, they are necessarily dependent on proving facts relevant to others of the same protected group subject to the same policy, class action or no class action.
Beyond Bullets: Strategies for Countering Violent Extremism The critical domestic support requirement is bipartisan consensus on the fundamentals of the strategy, which will take more than a single term to execute and, if successful, should set the direction of .