In The Curriculum,  the first textbook published on the subject, inJohn Franklin Bobbitt said that curriculum, as an ideahas its roots in the Latin word for race-course, explaining the curriculum as the course of deeds and experiences through which children become the adults they should be, for success in adult society. Furthermore, the curriculum encompasses the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring in and out of school, and not only experiences occurring in school ; experiences that are unplanned and undirected, and experiences intentionally directed for the purposeful formation of adult members of society. To Bobbitt, the curriculum is a social engineering arena.
The study showed that higher achieving students were able to look past this while other students were not. Another study done by White and Frederiksen  showed that when twelve 7th grade science classrooms were given time to reflect on what they deemed to be quality work, and how they thought they would be evaluated on their work, the gap between the high achieving students and the low achieving students was decreased.
By examining the different levels of work, students can start to differentiate between superior and inferior work.
Feedback[ edit ] There has been extensive research done on studying how students are affected by feedback. Kluger and DeNisi  reviewed over three thousand reports on feedback in schools, universities, and the workplace.
Of these, only of them were found to be scientifically rigorous and of those, 50 of the studies shows that feedback actually has negative effects on its recipients. Feedback is often given in the form of some numerical or letter grade and that perpetuates students being compared to their peers.
The studies previously mentioned showed that the most effective feedback for students is when they are not only told in which areas they need to improve, but also how to go about improving it. The next thing students tend to do is to ask other students in the class for their grade, and they compare the grade to their own grade.
Questioning[ edit ] Questioning is an important part of the learning process and an even more important part is asking the right types of questions. Questions that promote discussion and student reflection make it easier for students to go on the right path to end up completing their learning goals.
Here are some types of questions that are good to ask students: Wait time[ edit ] Wait time is the amount of time that is given to a student to answer a question that was posed and the time allowed for the student to answer.
Mary Budd Rowe  went on to look at the outcomes of having longer wait times for students. Students are able to speak to one another in a language that they are more comfortable with than they would be with an instructor.
The insight of a fellow student might be more relatable than that of a teacher. Students tend to accept constructive criticism more from a fellow student than from an instructor. While students are in the process of peer-assessment, a teacher can more easily take command of the learning going on.
Formative assessment is also known as educative assessment, classroom assessment, or assessment for learning. Methods[ edit ] There are many ways to integrate formative assessment into K—12 classrooms.
For example, researchers developed generative activities Stroup et al. Others developed strategies computer-supported collaborative learning environments Wang et al.
Purpose[ edit ] Formative assessment, or diagnostic testing as the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards argues, serves to create effective teaching curricula and classroom-specific evaluations.
Students are encouraged to think critically and to develop analytical skills. P Scot et al. The following are examples of application of formative assessment to content areas: In math education[ edit ] In math education, it is important for teachers to see how their students approach the problems and how much mathematical knowledge and at what level students use when solving the problems.
That is, knowing how students think in the process of learning or problem solving makes it possible for teachers to help their students overcome conceptual difficulties and, in turn, improve learning. In that sense, formative assessment is diagnostic.
In math classes, thought revealing activities such as model-eliciting activities MEAs and generative activities provide good opportunities for covering these aspects of formative assessment. Feedback examples[ edit ] Here are some examples of possible feedback for students in math education: Then we add one more variable.
Try to find them and fix them. Can you find a way to work it out? Can you use elimination now to solve them? Can you explain the advantages and disadvantages of each method? Can you make up your own more difficult problem?
Talk to Katie about the differences with the two. In classroom, short quizzes, reflectionals journals, or portfolios could be used as a formative assessment Cohen, Teachers and students both use formative assessments as a tool to make decisions based on data.
Formative assessment occurs when teachers feed information back to students in ways that enable the student to learn better, or when students can engage in a similar, self-reflective process. The evidence shows that high quality formative assessment does have a powerful impact on student learning.
Black and Wiliam report that studies of formative assessment show an effect size on standardized tests of between 0.
The effect size is the ratio of the average improvement in test scores in the innovation to the range of scores of typical groups of pupils on the same tests; Black and Wiliam recognize that standardized tests are very limited measures of learning.Latest news, comment, education jobs, teaching resources and discussion from Tes.
Chiropractic Curriculum Life University’s Chiropractic Curriculum. Courses are identified in the table below by offering quarters, subject/department designation, four-digit course number, course title, lecture, lab and credit hours.
1. Introduction. Process of curriculum development is essential for successful achieving educational goals for medical students. It asks for systematic approach which should respect several aspects: the needs of patients, of .
The Null Curriculum: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical Implications DAVID J. FLINDERS, NEL NODDINGS, and STEPHEN J.
THORNTON Stanford University ABSTRACT In this essay we take a critical look at the concept of "null curriculum"-what. Examples of vague and more defined Educational Goals Discipline-specific Program Level Educational Goals By the end of their program students will be able to. An educational goal describes “real-world” performance you want learners to exhibit once they have completed the curriculum.
Educational goals describe the overall learning outcome. Subsequent objectives, methods, and evaluation procedures are directed toward achieving the goals.