The Domesday Book This brief timeline of Middle Ages events mentions details of the major events during the Middle Ages which were significant to the lives and incidences of famous people, Kings and lords of the Middle Ages. The timeline starts with the beginning of the Dark Ages or Early Medieval period.
International English English is the current lingua franca of international business, education, science, technology, diplomacy, entertainment, radio, seafaring, and aviation.
After World War II, it has gradually replaced French as the lingua franca of international diplomacy. The widespread use of English was further advanced by the prominent international role played by English-speaking nations the United States and the Commonwealth of Nations in the aftermath of World War II, particularly in the establishment and organization of the United Nations.
The seating and roll-call order in sessions of the United Nations and its subsidiary and affiliated organizations is determined by alphabetical order of the English names of the countries. When the United Kingdom became a colonial power, English served as the lingua franca of the colonies of the British Empire.
In the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations which had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as an official language to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others.
The British Empire established the use of English in regions around the world such as North America, India, Africa, Australia and New Zealand, so that by the late 19th century its reach was truly global,  and in the latter half of the 20th century, widespread international use of English was much reinforced by the global economic, financial, scientific, military, and cultural pre-eminence of the English-speaking countries and especially the U.
Today, more than half of all scientific journals are published in English, while in France, almost one-third of all natural science research appears in English,  lending support to English being the lingua franca of science and technology.
English is also the lingua franca of international air traffic control and seafaring communications. French[ edit ] French was the language of diplomacy from the 17th century until the midth century,  and is still a working language of some international institutions.
French is still seen on documents ranging from passports to airmail letters.
|Axes and Swords for Beheading Beheading was a form of execution rather than a form of torture, but it could form part of a programme of torture. For example beheading was a part of the process of drawing, hanging, and quartering.|
French is spoken by educated people in cosmopolitan cities of the Middle East and North Africa and remains so in the former French colonies of the Maghrebwhere French is particularly important in economic capitals such as AlgiersCasablanca and Tunis.
Until the outbreak of the civil war in Lebanon, French was spoken by the upper-class Christian population. French is still a lingua franca in most Western and Central African countries and an official language of many, a remnant of French and Belgian colonialism.
These African countries and others are members of the Francophonie. French is the official language of the Universal Postal Unionwith English added as a working language in Previously one of the official languages of the Austro-Hungarian EmpireGerman remained an important second language in much of Central and Eastern Europe long after the dissolution of that empire after World War I.
World War II and its following resettlements during had a disastrous effect on the use of the German language in Central and Eastern Europe, where it was often suppressed and eventually dropped as a lingua franca by the mid-to-late 20th century.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, German was a prerequisite language for scientists. Latin, for a significant portion of the expansion of the Roman Catholic Churchwas the universal language of prayer and worship. During the Second Vatican CouncilCatholic liturgy changed to local languages, although Latin remains the official language of the Vatican.
Latin was used as the language of scholars in Europe until the early 19th century in most subjects. For instance, Christopher Simpson 's " Chelys or The Division viol " on how to improvise on the viol viola da gamba was published in in a multilingual edition in Latin and English, to make the material accessible for the wider European music community.
Another example is the Danish-Norwegian writer Ludvig Holbergwho published his book " Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum " in about an ideal society "Potu" " Utop " backwards with equality between the genders and an egalitarian structure, in Latin in Germany to avoid Danish censorship and to reach a greater audience.
In subjects like medicine and theology Latin has been a subject of study until the present day in most European universities, despite declining use in recent years.
This language was spoken from the 11th to 19th centuries around the Mediterranean basin, particularly in the European commercial empires of Italian cities GenoaVeniceFlorenceMilanPisaSiena and in trading ports located throughout the eastern Mediterranean rim.
This lasted from the 14th century to the end of the 16th, when French replaced Italian as the usual lingua franca in northern Europe.
Italian is considered the language of Opera. The presence of Italian as the official language in Vatican City indicates its use not only in the seat in Rome, but also anywhere in the world where an episcopal seat is present.
After the Middle Ages, modern High German and Dutch began to displace Low German, and it has now been reduced to many regional dialects, although they are still largely mutually intelligible. In recent years, the language has seen a resurgence in public interest, and it is increasingly being used as a mode of communication between speakers of northern German and eastern Dutch nationality.
Polish[ edit ] Polish was a lingua franca in areas of Central and Eastern Europeespecially regions that belonged to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Polish was for several centuries the main language spoken by the ruling classes in Lithuania and Ukraineand the modern state of Belarus.
Portuguese[ edit ] Portuguese served as lingua franca in the Portuguese Empire, Africa, South America and Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries.
When the Portuguese started exploring the seas of Africa, America, Asia and Oceania, they tried to communicate with the natives by mixing a Portuguese-influenced version of lingua franca with the local languages. When English or French ships came to compete with the Portuguese, the crews tried to learn this "broken Portuguese".
Through a process of change the lingua franca and Portuguese lexicon was replaced with the languages of the people in contact. Portuguese remains an important lingua franca in Africa PALOPEast TimorGoaand to a certain extent in Macau where it is recognized as an official language alongside Chinese though in practice not commonly spoken.
Russian[ edit ] Russian is in use and widely understood in Northern and Central Asia, areas formerly part of the Soviet Union or blocand may be understood by older people in Central and Eastern Europe, formerly part of the Warsaw Pact.
It remains the lingua franca in the Commonwealth of Independent States the former Soviet Union minus the more Western Baltic stateswhere English and German are preferred.
Russian is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations. In those four countries it is the main native language, and is also spoken by ethnic minorities.
For example, a Hungarian from Vojvodina and an Italian from Istria might use it as a shared second language.
Most people in Slovenia and Macedonia can understand or speak Serbo-Croatian as well.Life of Peasants in Medieval Times.
Written by Tim Nash History - Middle Ages Wars of the Roses; Wars of the Roses - Timeline; The Peasants Revolt; The Domesday Book; When we enjoy entertainment or festivals that celebrate medieval life and times, it is the life of royalty, traveling bards, monks of knights that are most often the focus of.
Medieval Music essaysMusic was important in the Medieval time period because it was a major source of entertainment.
There were no televisions or radios so people made up fairy tales and made music. Save your essays here so you can locate them quickly! Topics in Paper. Middle Ages; Musical Instrument; Classical music that was .
Middle English Literature: Essays and Articles.
Extensive resource of textual criticism, scholarly and student essays, and articles on Medieval texts. Below is an essay on "Entertainment In Middle Ages" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
During the time of the Middle Ages, many people played board-games. Some of the games included Chess, Tables, and Nine Men’s Morris, which is shown in the picture.
Nine Men’s Morris was a game played by . Updated September JUMP TO: Terms & Glossaries / Timelines / Maps / Feudalism - Daily Life - Carolingian Empire/Charlemagne.
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The Black Death (Plague). History and sociology. European Early Middle Ages, often referred to as the Dark Ages, or the European Middle Ages in general (5th to 15th centuries AD), particularly.
Migration Period of c. to AD; Saeculum obscurum or "dark age" in the history of the papacy, running from to AD; Dark Ages (historiography), the use of the term Dark Ages by historians and lay people.