Negative Reinforcement Further ideas and concepts[ edit ] Distinguishing between positive and negative can be difficult and may not always be necessary; focusing on what is being removed or added and how it is being removed or added will determine the nature of the reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is not punishment. The two, as explained above, differ in the increase negative reinforcement or decrease punishment of the future probability of a response.
For example, a fixed ratio schedule of 2 means reinforcement is delivered after every 2 correct responses. The chosen number could be 5, 10, 20 or it could be or more; there is no limit but the number must be defined.
Comparing an FR1 and an FR2 schedule of reinforcement. Just like a fixed-ratio schedule, a variable-ratio schedule can be any number but must be defined. A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement.
Specifically a VR3 schedule. Fixed-Interval Schedule FI A fixed-interval schedule means that reinforcement becomes available after a specific period of time. A common misunderstanding is that reinforcement is automatically delivered at the end of this interval but this is not the case.
Reinforcement only becomes available to be delivered and would only be given if the target behaviour is emitted at some stage after the time interval has ended.
To better explain this say a target behaviour is for a child to sit upright at his desk and an FI2 schedule of reinforcement is chosen. If the child sits upright during the 2 minute fixed-interval no reinforcement would be given because reinforcement for the target behaviour is not available during the fixed-interval.
If the child is slumped in his seat after the 2 minute interval elapses reinforcement would still not be given because reinforcement is only now available to be given. Just because he emitted the target behaviour sitting upright during the interval does not mean reinforcement is delivered at the end of the interval.
Say 10 more minutes pass before the boy sits upright, it is only now that he has emitted the target behaviour and the interval is over that reinforcement would be delivered. Once reinforcement is delivered then the 2 minute fixed-interval would be started again.
After the 2 minute fixed-interval had elapsed, it could have taken 2 seconds, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, minutes or more until the boy sat upright, but no matter how long it would have taken, no reinforcement would be delivered until he did.
Again the time interval can be any number but must be defined. In this example, reinforcement became available 5 times over a total interval period of 15 minutes.
Just like a fixed-interval FI schedule, reinforcement is only available to be delivered after the time interval has ended. Reinforcement is not delivered straight after the interval ends, the child must emit the target behaviour after the time interval has ended for the reinforcement to be delivered.
A Tip A helpful way to think of the interval schedules of reinforcement both fixed and variable is to think of the chosen time period as a period of time where no reinforcement would be given for the target behaviour.
When a limited hold is applied to either interval schedule then reinforcement is only available for a set time period after the time intervals have ended. For example, using an FI2 schedule with a limited hold of 10 seconds means that when the 2 minute time interval has ended the child must engage in the target behaviour within 10 seconds or the fixed-interval of 2 minutes will start again and no reinforcement would be delivered.
These terms are used to describe a change that may be made to a schedule of reinforcement already being used. So for example, a thinner schedule than an FR10 schedule might be an FR15 schedule, so the child would now have to get 15 correct responses before earning reinforcement.
So a thicker schedule than an FR10 might be an FR5 schedule, so the child would now have to get only 5 correct responses before earning reinforcement. Thinner and thicker schedules of reinforcement. Combining Schedules of Reinforcement Say a teacher is working through a spelling programme with a child and is using a token economy as positive reinforcement on an FR2 schedule of reinforcement; one token reinforcement is being delivered for every second correct spelling.
Combining fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement to deliver both tokens and verbal praise for correct responding. There is a lot that can be said to describe these schedules and for the sake of this article we will not go into this detail.A schedule of reinforcement in which the response requirements of two or more basic schedules must be met in a specific sequence before reinforcement is delivered Induction The spread of the effects of reinforcement to responses outside the limits of an operant class.
The current results demonstrated that a combination of FCT and a chained schedule procedure was effective at treating challenging behavior with multiple functions, including negative (i.e., escape from non-preferred academic tasks) and positive reinforcement (i.e., high-preferred leisure activities; attention).
Fixed schedules produce "post-reinforcement pauses" (PRP), where responses will briefly cease immediately following reinforcement, though the pause is a function of the upcoming response requirement rather than the prior reinforcement. Schedules of Reinforcement Schedules of reinforcement are the precise rules that are used to present (or to remove) reinforcers (or punishers) following a specified operant behavior.
These rules are defined in terms of the time and/or the number of responses required in order to present (or to remove) a . Specifically, we implemented a procedure that entailed FCT and a chained schedule consisting of two components: (a) a FI 5-min schedule of reinforcement for mands for the wristband and (b) a concurrent FR 1/FR 1/FR 1 schedule of reinforcement for mands for specific functional reinforcers.
Variable-Ratio Schedule (VR) When using a variable-ratio (VR) schedule of reinforcement the delivery of reinforcement will “vary” but must average out at a specific number. Just like a fixed-ratio schedule, a variable-ratio schedule can be any number but must be defined.