De Beauvoir on Engels The theory of historical materialism has brought to light some most important truths. Humanity is not an animal species, it is a historical reality.
Legal burden of proof and Philosophic burden of proof The burden of proof is the obligation of a party in an argument or dispute to provide sufficient evidence to shift the other party's or a third party's belief from their initial position.
The burden of proof must be fulfilled by both establishing confirming evidence and negating oppositional evidence. Conclusions drawn from evidence may be subject to criticism based on a perceived failure to fulfill the burden of proof.
Two principal considerations are: On whom does the burden of proof rest?
To what degree of certitude must the assertion be supported? The latter question depends on the nature of the point under contention and determines the quantity and quality of evidence required to meet the burden of proof.
In a criminal trial in the United States, for example, the prosecution carries the burden of proof since the defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Similarly, in most civil proceduresthe plaintiff carries the burden of proof and must convince a judge or jury that the preponderance of the evidence is on their side.
Other legal standards of proof include "reasonable suspicion", "probable cause" as for arrest" prima facie evidence", "credible evidence", "substantial evidence", and "clear and convincing evidence". In a philosophical debatethere is an implicit burden of proof on the party asserting a claim, since the default position is generally one of neutrality or unbelief.
Each party in a debate will therefore carry the burden of proof for any assertion they make in the argument, although some assertions may be granted by the other party without further evidence.
If the debate is set up as a resolution to be supported by one side and refuted by another, the overall burden of proof is on the side supporting the resolution.
Scientific evidence In scientific research evidence is accumulated through observations of phenomena that occur in the natural world, or which are created as experiments in a laboratory or other controlled conditions. Scientific evidence usually goes towards supporting or rejecting a hypothesis.
The burden of proof is on the person making a contentious claim. Within science, this translates to the burden resting on presenters of a paper, in which the presenters argue for their specific findings.
This paper is placed before a panel of judges where the presenter must defend the thesis against all challenges. When evidence is contradictory to predicted expectations, the evidence and the ways of making it are often closely scrutinized see experimenter's regress and only at the end of this process is the hypothesis rejected: The rules for evidence used by science are collected systematically in an attempt to avoid the bias inherent to anecdotal evidence.Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.
This support may be strong or weak. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. At the other extreme is evidence that is merely consistent with an assertion but does not rule out other, contradictory assertions, as in circumstantial evidence.
Case Study 9- Horney `1.
Which of Horney’s neurotic trends is Samara demonstrating? Samara is demonstrating the complaint type of neurotic trend%(2). Elizabeth Howard Case Study #9 February 14, 1. I would say that Samara is a dependent neurotic trend.
Samara is cold, not poised, and does not have a stable marriage or relationship. The latest Tweets from MSU (@michiganstateu). The official Twitter account for Michigan State University. #SpartansWill.
East Lansing, MI USAAccount Status: Verified. Horney selected the case study method, which is similar to Freud, Jung, and Adler’s work with patients. The four protective mechanisms Erikson believes that . Case Study CH 10 March 21, Case Study CH Invincibility Systems #1 Invincibility Systems has taken extreme action in their Human Resource planning and recruiting.
They have taken into account lots of important characteristics needed in a successful employee/business. They get very specific and study individual employees.