February 6, at 2: It just seems unlikely that you can boost the bottom wage up to above the median wage for a family.
History[ edit ] Ancient forms of clandestine chemistry included the manufacturing of explosives. This is frequently done to avoid taxation on spirits.
From tothe United States Meth small town america the sale, manufacture, or transportation of alcoholic beverages. This opened a door for brewers to supply their own town with alcohol. Just like modern-day drug labs, distilleries were placed in rural areas.
The term moonshine generally referred to "corn whiskey", that is, a whiskey -like liquor made from corn. Today, American-made corn whiskey can be labeled or sold under that nameor as Bourbon or Tennessee whiskeydepending on the details of the production process.
Precursor chemicals[ edit ] Prepared substances as opposed to those that occur naturally in a consumable form, such as cannabis and psilocybin mushrooms require reagents. Some drugs, like cocaine and morphine, are extracted from plant sources and refined with the aid of chemicals.
Semi-synthetic drugs such as heroin are made starting from alkaloids extracted from plant sources which are the precursors for further synthesis. In the case of heroin, a mixture of alkaloids is extracted from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum by incising its seed capsule, whereupon a milky fluid the opium 'latex' bleeds out of the incisions which is then left to dry out and scraped off the bulbs, yielding raw opium.
Morphine, one of many alkaloids in opium, is then extracted out of the opium by acid-base extraction and turned into heroin by reacting it with acetic anhydride. Other drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA are normally made from commercially available chemicals, though both can also be made from naturally occurring precursors.
Methamphetamine can also be made from ephedrineone of the naturally occurring alkaloids in ephedra Ephedra sinica. MDMA can be made from safrolethe major constituent of several etheric oils like sassafras. Governments have adopted a strategy of chemical control as part of their overall drug control and enforcement plans.
Chemical control offers a means of attacking illicit drug production and disrupting the process before the drugs have entered the market. Governments often place restrictions on the purchase of large quantities of chemicals that can be used in the production of illicit drugs, usually requiring licenses or permits to ensure that the purchaser has a legitimate need for them.
Suppliers of precursor chemicals[ edit ] Chemicals critical to the production of cocaine, heroin, and synthetic drugs are produced in many countries throughout the world.
Many manufacturers and suppliers exist in Europe, China, India, the United States, and a host of other countries. Historically, chemicals critical to the synthesis or manufacture of illicit drugs are introduced into various venues via legitimate purchases by companies that are registered and licensed to do business as chemical importers or handlers.
In response to stricter international controls, drug traffickers have increasingly been forced to divert chemicals by mislabeling the containers, forging documents, establishing front companies, using circuitous routing, hijacking shipments, bribing officials, or smuggling products across international borders.
Enforcement of controls on precursor chemicals[ edit ] General[ edit ] The Multilateral Chemical Reporting Initiative encourages governments to exchange information on a voluntary basis in order to monitor international chemical shipments. The problem is complicated by the fact that many chemical shipments are either brokered or transshipped through third countries in an attempt to disguise their purpose or destination.
The Regulation also establishes uniform procedures for licensing and registration of operators and users who are listed in a European database tracking drug precursors.
Cocaine[ edit ] Operation Purple is a U. Critical to the success of this operation is the communication network that gives notification of shipments and provides the government of the importer sufficient time to verify the legitimacy of the transaction and take appropriate action.
The effects of this initiative have been dramatic and far-reaching.
Operation Purple has exposed a significant vulnerability among traffickers, and has grown to include almost thirty nations. According to the DEA, Operation Purple has been highly effective at interfering with cocaine production.
However, illicit chemists always find new methods to evade the DEA's scrutiny. In countries where strict chemical controls have been put in place, illicit drug production has been seriously affected.These Are The 10 Worst Small Towns In America. We used science and data to analyze which small cities in America are the real pits.
"Tik": Crystal meth in Cape Town. 13 June - In Cape Town, South Africa, crystal methamphetamine use has exploded very quickly.
Known locally as . Ask the Experts. Entrepreneurs who lack expert guidance are more likely to struggle. For insight into starting a business in a small city, we turned to a panel of . A young woman who was left hideously disfigured after an explosion at an illegal meth lab has been caught manufacturing the drug again.
Heather Raybon was left permanently scarred with terrible. All of Georgia faces the worst meth epidemic in history, like much of America. It's a problem in Gwinnett, DeKalb, Cobb, Fulton, Chatham, Bibb, Dougherty, Richmond and, authorities say, everywhere.
Ross is an artist and a professor, though in every sense his work is framed by, and propelled forward with, the cause of social justice. His images (and teaching) have long provided access to.